Home

A must have NEW book…..

DISCOVERING JAMAICAN BUTTERFLIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS AROUND THE CARIBBEAN

A comprehensive study of Jamaican butterflies, and the need for conservation of those species facing loss of critical habitat

by
Thomas W. Turner and Vaughan A. Turland

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies
Discovering Jamaican Butterflies: ISBN 978-0-692-87706-7

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies and their Relationships around the Caribbean by authors Thomas Turner and Vaughan Turland is the first comprehensive book on the subject since 1972. This 512 page publication is richly illustrated with more than 1000 photographs and figures, most in color, and depicts Jamaican butterflies in their natural habitats. All 136 butterflies known from Jamaica including new species and subspecies discovered by the authors on the island are described. Each account examines Relationships with other species around the Caribbean and their Origin. A detailed Description of the Adult is included, together with data on Larval food plants and Immature stages, much documented for the first time. Adult Behavior and Distribution within the island is described for each species and there is a Taxonomic List, a chapter on the terminology used in the descriptions, a glossary, and a chapter with tables summarizing Habitat preferences, also Caribbean and Conservation Status.

This publication will be of special interest to researchers interested in tropical butterflies, to those involved with studying the natural history of the Caribbean, as well as to those interested in wildlife protection and conservation.

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies and their relationships around the Caribbean is now available to buy on Amazon.

Sample extract from typical species description (1)

Dynamine egaea egaea (Fabricius, 1775)

Endemic species

Jamaican Sailor         TL: Jamaica

Relationships and Origin

The Jamaican Sailor is a small sexually dimorphic endemic species; the dorsal colors of the male, pale metallic green; those of the female, blue, black, and white. Because of this variability it was initially believed that they were two separate species. As stated in Brown and Heineman (1972, 160), Fabricius (1775, 496, #231) first named the female from Jamaica egaea and the male (1775, 497 #232) serina. Subsequently it was realized that these specimens were different sexes of the same species. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the International Congress of Zoology, Item VI. Article 23, Law of Priority states, in part, “The valid name is the oldest available name applied to it… provided that the name is not invalidated by any provisions of the Code or has not been suppressed by the Commission.” The name serina has been proposed as the correct name for this species (Warren et al. 2015), but there does not appear to be any revision justifying a change of name, and the first designated name for this species is egaea.

  1. D. egaea egaea appears to be closely related to D. egaea calais Bates from Cuba, and more distantly to D. egaea zetes Ménétriès from Hispaniola. There are consistent differences between the three, possibly indicating they are all distinct species. Although smaller in average size than D. egaea calais, similarity in markings at first suggest that D. egaea egaea is possibly the result of an early introduction originating from Cuba.

Description of the Adult

The average wingspan of both male and female is 29 mm or (1.2 in) (n=74); average forewing length 18 mm.

Male: UFW metallic green, with a double black outer margin and a wider black apical tip; apex more rounded than that of D. egaea calais and similar to that of D. dyonis. Base of costa, light brown. There is a black submarginal line extending from the apex to vein M2. A gray-black smudged subapical bar extends from the costa meeting the submarginal line below vein M1. UHW entirely pale metallic green, appearing metallic blue in oblique light, with dark gray double marginal lines. Basal and submarginal markings from the lower wing surfaces appear faintly through to the dorsal surface. Anal margin, gray.

Dorsal head, palps, thorax, and abdomen, greenish-gray, with additional tufts of reddish-brown scales on the thorax. Antennae, black; clubs small, with yellowish-brown tips. Ventral head, palps, thorax, legs, and abdomen, off-white; distal segments of legs, yellowish-buff. …

Fig. 901. ♂ showing metallic blue, Spur Tree, Manchester, Jul., 2016.
Fig. 901. ♂ showing metallic blue, Spur Tree, Manchester, Jul., 2016.

Fig. 904 ♀ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Nov., 2007.
Fig. 904 ♀ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Nov., 2007.

TOP LEFT ♂ dorsal, avg ws 29 mm, Duncans, Trelawny, Dec., 1990.
♂ dorsal, avg ws 29 mm, Duncans, Trelawny, Dec., 1990.

TOP RIGHT ♂ ventral, Holland Bay, St. Thomas, Jul., 1972.
♂ ventral, Holland Bay, St. Thomas, Jul., 1972.

BOTTOM LEFT ♀ dorsal, avg ws 29 mm, Rozelle, St. Thomas, Jun., 1995.
♀ dorsal, avg ws 29 mm, Rozelle, St. Thomas, Jun., 1995.

BOTTOM RIGHT ♀ ventral, Rozelle, St. Thomas, Jun., 1995.
♀ ventral, Rozelle, St. Thomas, Jun., 1995.

 

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies and their relationships around the Caribbean is now available to buy on Amazon.

Sample extract from typical species description (2)

Mestra dorcas (Fabricius, 1775)

Endemic species

Jamaican Mestra         TL: Jamaica

Fig. 916. ♀ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Feb., 2009.
Fig. 916. ♀ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Feb., 2009.

Fig. 918. ♂ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Nov., 2009.
Fig. 918. ♂ Malvern, St. Elizabeth, Nov., 2009.
♂ dorsal, avg ws 33 mm, Port Antonio, Portland, Jun., 1962.
♂ dorsal, avg ws 33 mm, Port Antonio, Portland, Jun., 1962.

Larval Food Plants and Immature Stages

The larval food plant is Twining Cowitch, Tragia volubis L. (Euphorbiaceae).

Egg: Subspherical, with yellow setae arranged in single rows on each of the fine vertical ribs. These setae extend above and around the egg, perhaps providing some protection from egg parasites. Laid singly on the undersides of a larger leaf or on a smaller terminal leaf. Pale yellow becoming dull yellow, then gray before the larva emerges after approximately five days.

Early instars: The larva initially chews small holes through the leaf from below. Frass is forcibly expelled.

Yellowish-green, becoming green with ingested food; head, pale orange, with simple setae; thoracic and abdominal segments covered with rows of simple setae rising from small tubercles. First thoracic segment with a “collar” of forward-pointing greenish-white …

Later instars: The larva consumes younger leaves and flower buds, and rests on the upper side of leaves. Most feeding is at night. If disturbed it wriggles and falls from the food plant. When the larva is at rest the head is held against the leaf, coronal horns projecting forward; the third thoracic segment is raised, and the prolegs attached to the leaf, but the last three segments are often also raised.

Head, black, with many short curved black peripheral spines; the two gold frontal spots of the early instars

Pupa: Dark brown, green, or a combination of both colors, appearing like a dried, rolled, leaf. This effect is further enhanced by raised wing veins and antennae that mimic leaf veins. Head, small with two short forward-projecting processes over the greenish-brown eyes…

Adult Behavior and Distribution

Adults are found at the edge of dry limestone forest habitats and beside roads through this habitat where Tragia commonly grows. They exhibit a weak fluttering flight, usually less than 1 m above the ground, while searching for mates, larval food plants, and nectar sources, often in quite arid conditions. Individuals fly and settle repeatedly for many hours during bright, sunny periods. Nectaring has been observed on Heliotropium angiospermum, Lantana camara, Cordia brownei, and Eupatorium odoratum. Both sexes will also feed on honeydew.

This species is found in all parishes at elevations up to 760 m (2,500 ft), but is most abundant along the coastal plains and at elevations below 250 m (820 ft).

Fig. 923. Pupa, green form.
Fig. 922. Final instar larva, green phase.

Fig. 922. Final instar larva, green phase.
Fig. 923. Pupa, green form.
Fig. 924. Distribution map, Mestra dorcas.
Fig. 924. Distribution map, Mestra dorcas.

 

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies and their relationships around the Caribbean is now available to buy on Amazon.

Some of Jamaica’s beautiful butterflies described

Discovering Jamaican Butterflies and their relationships around the Caribbean is now available to buy on Amazon.

Troyus Turneri
Troyus turneri

Hypanartia
Hypanartia paullus

Chlorostrymon simaethis
Chlorostrymon simaethis

Eurema adamsi
Eurema adamsi

Lucinia cadma
Lucinia cadma

Josephina
Ganyra josephina
Shuturn
Cyclargus shuturn

Marpesia
Marpesia eleuchea


CONTACT INFO

Caribbean Wildlife Publications
Safety Harbor, Florida

cwpublications@frontier.com

 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the copyright owners.